Principles of Shape Correction for flat rolled strip and the equipment it takes to do the job!
Difference between a Flattener, Straightener, and Leveler…
By bending the work rolls, you can selectively work some zones of the strip (from edge to edge) more than other zones causing elongation. The basic principle is to elongate the short zones to match the length of the long zones.
Elongation occurs due to working the material and differential path length through the leveler.
Typical roll bending to eliminate edge wave. The short center is worked harder than the long edges.